I.I. Zima


Nowadays the science about the matter structure is based upon the planetary model of an atom, which is called as the Rutherford – Bohr’s model. The atom is considered in the theory as consisting of the central positively charged core and negatively charged electrons flying around
it. Thus electrons move in an atom according to quantized energy favorable trajectories.

The theory, explaining the principle of the planetary model action, is the quantum mechanics, which replaced the classic macroscopic physics in 20th century as a result of the test data generalization, concerning to microcosms properties learning. The atom planetary model is described in the quantum mechanics by the equations, which solutions have the wave character. It is possible to obtain from these equations the probability of the particle detection in a particular position or the probability of the particle transition from one energy state to another. 

The adequacy of the atom planetary model is proved by practice in many respects. The broad application of a spectroscopy, electronic microscope, semiconductor devices, atomic energy etc. in researches and engineering became possible only after the quantum theory creation.

However physical concepts of the quantum mechanics have no visualization property, so they can not be explained by the images customary to us. It complicates its results comprehension in a particular degree and requires the developed abstract thinking and good mathematical training from the researcher. Besides the accuracy of the obtained solutions depends in a major degree on the precision of the task formulation and possibilities of the mathematical apparatus applied. Therefore, it is necessary to do approximations, introduce the corrections and postulates at the simulation of atoms containing more than two electrons.

The example of such postulate introduction to the quantum mechanics is the Pauli's principle postulation after the known experiment by Gerlach-Stern and the discovery of own rotary particles motion about their axis. The imaginations about the particle as a rotating top were taken into account by the mathematical introduction of the spin formal concept and the Young’s diagrams of connections as the experimental result. As a consequence, the particles planetary motion remains essential in the atom model, and thus it was possible to refuse visual and customary representations about the rotation used in classic physics as before. 

Certainly, such supposition is fair for separate existence of particles in a remote distance. But it is not quite apparent why a negative electron should fly around a positive proton on the remote orbit, instead of rotating together with it, being on its surface. Especially as the particles planetary motion is reduced to the rotary one in a limit. Therefore, here we come to the atom rotary model, which starts with the problem answer:

Whether can two and more particles be together in the synchronous rotary motion? 

The purpose of this work is to show the creation possibility of the atom rotary model and the new approach fruitfulness. The paper has the conceptual character and is the evidence that the knowledge of the world organization is fairly from being concluded and the premises for the new materials appearance and their manufacture technologies can be created with the atom planetary model appearance by the non-conventional approaches.

1. General provisions.

The atom rotary model does not differ from the planetary one basically. An atom as a steady material structure consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, which has the known mass, charge, spin and magnetic moment. Thus the particles are represented as continuously rotating magnetic tops and rotors. The rotor is convenient for representing as the pinions with cogs for visualization. Each atom is characterized by the particles particular set according to the periodic table of elements as well as in the planetary model. However the rotor interaction between particles is assigned primary importance in the rotary model that is electrical, magnetic and mechanical interaction of rotors at their synchronous rotation in a linkage state being the part of an atom. Such atom model by itself is the dialectic return to the classic physics and allows using the known representations closely related to a person for the analysis. 

The forces of electrical and magnetic repulsion should be overcome and the conditions of their mechanical linkage should be provided for the corotation of particles. Thus it is necessary to take into account that the rotors of protons and electrons have: different diameters (the radiuses of a proton and neutron in 1836 times more than an electron radius owing to the masses difference); opposite and equal electrical charges; the opposite directions of the spin and magnetic moment vectors (they are parallel for a proton, and are antiparallel for an electron). The neutron has no electric charge, but has the mass and magnetic moment equal to the mass and magnetic moment of a proton approximately. However, the neutron directions of the spin and magnetic moment vectors are antiparallel. The magnetic moment of an electron is larger in 1836 times than the magnetic moment of the proton and neutron. The spins of the electron, proton and neutron can be equal + ½ or – ½. The rotors mechanical linkage can be lateral and butt. That’s why the atom rotary model can be monolayer and multilayer, monolink or multilink (chained), monoblock or multiblock. 

The rotary models of an electron (а), proton (b) and neutron (c), taking into account the particles marked features, are given in the fig. 1. Here the vectors directions of particles spins are shown by arrows, and the magnetic moments are shown by hatching. The charges of protons and electrons are shown by the signs + and.

2. The particles bringing together.

The main condition of the atom formation of rotating rotors is their bringing together taking into account the described features of the rotors themselves. Thus we should consider the following features of their corotation. At first, two rotors of different diameters can rotate together with different speeds only at opposite rotation directions. Thus the particles spins should be antiparallel. Such link can be only lateral. There is a collision of rotors cogs at the parallel bringing together. It is possible to suppose that the rotors parallel collision is the reason of the Brownian motion and soaring of gases molecules. Secondly, two identical rotors can rotate together with identical speeds at lateral and butt links.

Supposing that the force of electrical interaction (attraction, repulsion) is more than the magnetic interaction force and considering that other forces do not affect upon particles, it is possible to obtain the following axioms of the particles bringing together. 

1. Two protons can not approach to each other owing to the electrical repulsion. 
2. Two electrons can not approach to each other owing to the electrical repulsion.
3. The proton and neutron can not approach to each other owing to the magnetic repulsion. 
4. Two neutrons can be united by the magnetic force at antiparallel lateral and parallel butt linkage. 
5. The neutron and electron can be united by a magnetic force at antiparallel lateral linkage. Thus an electron runs on the neutron surface. 

6. The proton and electron can be united by the electrical force at antiparallel lateral linkage. Thus their magnetic repulsion occurs. The electron runs on the proton surface at the magnetic repulsion compensation by the electrical attraction. 

On the basis of the given axioms analysis of the bringing together it is possible to suspect that there can be four types of the elementary atoms consisting of two elementary particles in the nature:

- proton-electron pair;
- neutron-electron pair;
- bineutron pair;
- bineutron chain. 

The rotary models of the proton-electron pair (а), neutron-electron pair (b), bineutron pair (c), bineutron chain (d) are given in the fig. 2.

The obtained results testify of the existence possibility of the proton and neutron matter.

The proton matter is formed by the proton-electron pairs, which are the hydrogen-protium isotope customary to us in the proximate reviewing. The rotary model of such a pair is close to the planetary model of the atomic hydrogen owing to the magnetic repulsion of the proton and electron. 

The proton-electron pair is electro-neutral having the summary mass as well as the magnetic moment of the proton and electron. Therefore outwardly this pair is equivalent to the neutron with the magnetic moment of an electron. The toughness of the pair is determined by the electrical interaction of the proton and electron. Thus, there can be two similar particles: the neutron and quasi- neutron in the nature. Nowadays it can be considered that the neutron is an unstable particle, which does not exist in the free state and disintegrates to the proton, electron and anti-neutrino. It is possible to suspect that instability and beta decay are peculiar rather for the quasi-neutron and there is the particular confusion in physics. Moreover the quasi-neutron is also the atomic hydrogen, which does not exist really in the free state. 

The neutron matter is formed by bineutron and neutron-electron pairs as well as by chains of the real neutrons. 

The neutron-electron pair has the negative charge and non-compensated magnetic moment of an electron. The neutron-electron pair can be called as the neutrotium by analogy with the protium. Outwardly the neutron-electron pair is equivalent to the antiproton with the magnetic moment of an electron. The pair toughness is determined by the magnetic attraction of the neutron and electron. It is possible to speak about the strong magnetic interaction of an electron and neutron by analogy with the quantum mechanics representations in this case. It is possible to suspect that there are also two types of antiprotons distinguished by the magnetic moment value in the nature. 

The bineutron pair is formed at the lateral linkage of two neutrons. The pair is magnetic and electric neutral. The pair toughness is determined by the magnetic attraction of neutrons. In this case it is possible to speak about weak magnetic interaction of two neutrons. 

The bineutron chain is formed at the butt linkage of two neutrons. The pair represents a series connection of two magnets and has the summary magnetic moment. The toughness is determined by the weak magnetic interaction of neutrons.

The obtained results do not contradict modern representations about the matter, in particular, the matter of space [1]. So, for example, it is known that there is the atomic hydrogen in space in large quantities. i.e. proton-electron pairs. In many galaxies the astronomers find out, so-called, the hidden mass – the invisible substance, which existence is connected to the presence of a great number of particles possessing the rest-mass and interacting among themselves and the visible substance only gravitationally. The bineutron pairs are, probably, such particles. It is possible to suspect that the presence of neutron stars in space is connected to the existence of neutron-electron pairs. It is considered, that these stars have the strong magnetic field and create natural conditions for the antiparticles birth, what are the neutron-electron pairs themselves. At last, in the author’s opinion, the bineutron chains form the force lines of geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic fields. The parallelism of their magnetic moments results in the formation of multilink chains of force lines, to their mutual repulsion in space and pushing out to space. It is possible to suspect that the adequacy of such a model of the magnetic field is confirmed, for example, by the force lines destruction of the geomagnetic field by the solar wind and the lengthy tail formation for the Earth magnetosphere. The basis for this purpose, as it can be seen of the conducted analysis, is the fact that the neutron matter is not strong, as it is connected by weak magnetic forces. It is necessary to mark that the representation of the magnetic force lines as neutron chains does not contradict the physics of the magnetic field visualization by iron raspings and confirms the correctness of its interferential model offered by the author in the paper [2]. Apparently, it is possible to find the other examples verifying the neutron matter existence and the adequacy of offered rotary models of the elementary atoms as well.

3. Bringing together of pairs and particles.

The following stage of rotary simulation of atoms is the bringing together of pairs and particles. Thus also a number of the axioms permitting to conduct the analysis of more complicated atoms and aggregates can be formulated.

1.Two neutron-electron pairs can not be united owing to the electrical 
repulsion of electrons.

2.Bineutron pairs can not combine with other pairs and particles owing to 
their electrical and magnetic neutrality.

3.The electroneutral proton-electron pair and bineutron chain can’t be united 
owing to the magnetic repulsion.

4.Two bineutron chains can be united by the magnetic force at the butt 
linkage. The aggregate is electroneutral, but it has the summary magnetic 
moment of neutrons that creates the premises for the formation of 
multilink neutron chains.

5.Two electroneutral proton-electron pairs can be united by the magnetic 
force at antiparallel lateral and parallel butt linkage. The lateral linkage 
can be either by an electron or proton. The linkage toughness is 
determined by the strong magnetic attraction of an electron. The aggregate 
of two proton-electron pairs is electric and magnetic neutral at the lateral
linkage. On its composition it corresponds to the molecule of 
hydrogen, which is the second variety of the proton matter. The 
aggregate has the summary magnetic moment of electrons at the butt 
linkage. The availability of the magnetic moment creates the premises for 
existence of one more variety of the proton matter - chains of 
hydrogen molecules similar to bineutron chains in nature. However 
the toughness of proton hydrogenous chains are greater in three orders
than the neutron linkage due to the magnetic force of the electrons 

The aggregates rotary models of two proton-electron pairs at 
the lateral (а) and butt (b) linkages are given in the fig. 3.

6. The proton-electron and neutron-electron pairs can be united by the 
magnetic force of an electron at the lateral and butt linkages. The 
aggregate composition is similar to the isotope composition of the 
deuterium D_at the butt linkage. It has the negative charge and 
the summary magnetic moment of electrons. The destruction of the neutron-electron pair occurs owing to the magnetic repulsion of a neutron at the pairs lateral linkage. Thus the aggregate similar to the ion H_ and the free neutron is formed. The aggregate has the negative charge and the magnetic moment of the proton similarly to the antiproton.

The rotary models of aggregates originating at the bringing together of the proton-electron and neutron-electron pair at the lateral (а) and butt (b) linkages are given in the fig. 4.

7.The neutron-electron pair and bineutron chain can be united at the lateral 
linkage. Thus there is a destruction of the bineutron chain with the 
formation of the free neutron and aggregate consisting of two neutrons 
and an electron. It has the negative charge and the summary magnetic 
moment of an electron. The aggregate represents one more variety of the 
neutron matter and can be classified as the neutrotium isotope. The
rotary model of the aggregate is given in the fig. 4 (c). 

8. The electroneutral proton-electron pair can join either a proton or electron as well as a neutron. Thus the link is magnetic. The linkage with a neutron can be only lateral and antiparallel through an electron. The aggregate composition is similar to the atom composition of a deuterium at the merger with a neutron. The linkage with a proton can be through a proton both antiparallel lateral and parallel butt. The linkage with an electron can be through an electron and antiparallel lateral as well as parallel butt. The simultaneous linkage of two particles: both the proton and electron; the proton and neutron is probable as well. The appropriate rotary models of possible aggregates are given in the fig.

5. According to their composition the obtained aggregates correspond to the atom of deuterium (а), ions of protium (b, c, d, e), and also the molecule of hydrogen (f, g).

9. The neutron-electron pair can be united with a proton and neutron. Thus the link with a proton is electrical at the magnetic repulsion. The linkage can be both antiparallel lateral and parallel butt. The merger with a neutron is possible only on the electron side due to its magnetic attraction. The appropriate rotary models of probable aggregates are given in the fig. 6. On their composition the obtained aggregates resemble the deuterium atom (a, b) and the isotope of the neutrotium (c) already mentioned.

10. The bineutron chain can be united only with a neutron by a magnetic force at the parallel butt linkage. Thus there is a joint of a number of the neutron chain links.

The rotary models of atoms and aggregates including from three to four elementary particles have been obtained as a result of the axioms analysis of the pairs and particles bringing together. Some rotary models correspond to the known planetary models of atoms as for their composition, other represent their varieties, not apparent from the positions of quantum mechanics, and the third represent new substances. In particular, the models are obtained: four varieties of a hydrogen molecule; two varieties of the deuterium atom; helium atom; two varieties of the protium isotopes; an ion of deuterium; an isotope of neutrotium.

It is shown that modern quantum and mechanical imaginations about atoms lie, mainly, within the models framework of the proton-neutron matter.

The imagination about the varieties of the proton and neutron matter has been detailed. In particular, it is shown that the isotopes of a protium H + and H- as well the hydrogen molecule refer to the proton matter as the protium does, and its isotope consisting of two neutrons and an electron refers to the neutron matter besides the neutrotium.

The interesting is the fact that the existence possibility of discrete and chain varieties of atoms and molecules is shown both in the neutron and proton matter. 

It is shown also that the matter can be classified as to the toughness. So, the atoms bound by the force of the particles electrical interaction have the maximal toughness. Then the atoms bound by the magnetic interaction force of electrons follow them. And, at last, the atoms bound by the magnetic interaction force of neutrons have minimum toughness. It is significant that the atoms and aggregates of the proton and proton-neutron matter have the maximal toughness, the basis of which are the proton-electron pairs, and the neutron matter like neutron chains have minimum toughness. It is possible to suspect that the neutron matter is not found until nowadays because of its low toughness, as the traditional monitoring instruments consist of the proton-neutron matter.


The new approach to the problem of the adequate models synthesis and analysis of the substance atoms based on the elementary particles imaginations as the magnetic tops (rotors) has been proposed in this paper. Thus the gyration of particles about their axis is regarded as of paramount importance, and their electrical and magnetic interaction occurs in the state of the rotors mechanical linkage. The particles in atoms do not fly, but rotate synchronously, being brought together.

As a whole the proposed approach has appeared fruitful. A number of axioms of the particles and their aggregates bringing together, permitted to obtain the physical analogs of the hydrogen elementary atoms and molecules and its isotopes are formulated on the basis traditional imaginations of classic mechanics. Thus the models of their discrete and chain varieties, but not apparent from the positions of a quantum mechanics as well as the atoms of new substances have been obtained. In particular, the rotary models of a new element called as nitrotium and its isotopes have been obtained during the work.

The conclusion that in addition to the matter proton and proton-neutron kinds postulated by the quantum mechanics is made on the basis of the structure analysis of the obtained models, the neutron matter can exist in the nature, the acceptance of which can explain the physics of the hidden mass, thin substance, ether, magnetic field and other disputable problems of the modern natural sciences. In particular, the new model of the space magnetic field like the aggregate of the neutrons chains, bound by their magnetic interaction force has been already proposed in the paper. 

Apparently, the obtained results require comprehension and experimental check. The researches, the results of which given in the paper, have been fulfilled in the hand-held mode on the basis of the images and possibilities of the human logic customary to us. The researches exploring of more composite atoms require the rotary models complicating and registration of a great number of the factors of the aggregates and blocks bringing together. The usage of an electronic computer, the development of the special software and the creation of the special measurement technology are necessary for their realization.


1. Physics of space. The small encyclopedia. M.: Soviet encyclopedia, 1986.

1.I.I. Zima Rotary geomagnetism. A new view on the primeval problem. Kharkov, “Oberig” LTD, 2005.